medical notes

High Yield topics for NEET PG 2023

Medical graduates who want to go on to higher education need to know everything they need to know about the NEET PG entrance exam. They will have an easier time navigating the syllabus and passing the entrance exam in time to be accepted into the PG course as a result.

The NEET PG syllabus consists of three sections that are divided into various sub-sections. The Graduate Medical Education Regulations of the Medical Council of India drafted these sections. Prior to taking the exam, candidates must review the MCI-prescribed syllabus because the National Board of Examination does not offer a comprehensive syllabus for this.

The NEET PG exam pattern and subject-specific weighting The NEET PG exam pattern has 200 multiple-choice questions. Each correct response receives four points, and each incorrect response receives one point. The weighting of questions in each subject helps students concentrate on the appropriate topics.

Important / High Yield topics for NEET PG

 

The syllabus for the NEET PG contains the following list of high yield subjects and topics

 

ANATOMY: High Yield topics for NEET PG

 

• Cranial Nerves And Nuclei, esp. Optic nerve pathway- Most important for INICET

• Brachial Plexus: Branches and Palsies • Root Values And Dermatomes of UL & LL

• Arteries and branches: Subclavian artery, Axillary artery, Internal iliac

• Nerve Supply of Perineum, Ear, Eye

• Relations of Lesser Sac, Parotid gland

• Peritoneal anatomy

Embryology:

• Derivatives Of Dierent Germ Layers, particularly Neural Crest

• Branchial Arch, CleG Derivatives

• Spermato/Oogenesis, Mitosis, Meiosis

Osteology:

• Types Of Joints With Examples

• Ossification Centers, particularly ones present at birth

• Knee Join Ligaments; learn with orthopedics (injuries)

Neuroanatomy:

• Cavernous Sinus Boundaries/Structures Passing through it, Tributaries

• Blood Supply

• Brainstem Sections

• Ventricle Boundaries Perineum:

• Urethra (Study with Urethral trauma)

• Rectum Anal Canal anatomy

• Spermatic Cord contents

• Reproductive System derivatives (with embryology) Histology:

• List Of Epithelium Lining Of Various Regions Thorax:

• Heart Arterial anatomy • Diaphragm with embryology

• Broncho vascular Segments of lung

• Lung hilum

Best notes to refer: Elite Series Anatomy

Other notes: Egurukul Notes by Ashwani Kumar

BIOCHEMISTRY: High Yield topics for NEET PG

Most important: Cycles

Multiple revisions must be given; to be studied with pediatrics inborn errors of metabolism; understand the step of defect of various disorders with absent enzyme and resultant substrate accumulation resulting in disease

Metabolism:

• Glycolysis • Gluconeogenesis • Krebs cycle • ETC • Glycogen Metabolism • Fatty acid synthesis and Oxidation • Purine and pyrimidine metabolism • Lipoproteins • Carbohydrate isomerism • Energetics of all pathways • GLUTS • Ubiquitine proteasome pathway • Polarity of amino acids • 21st amino acid Genetics: To be done with Pathology and genetic disorders of Pediatrics • Karyotyping • PCR and types, esp. RT-PCR • FISH • Microarray, CGH • Epigenetics • Flow cytometry

Vitamins and essential fatty acids: Function, Deficiency Protein Structure, Collagen Structure DNA replication, transcription, translation

Enzymes: Classification, Kinetics, Isozymes

Best notes to refer:  Biochemistry Capsule

PHYSIOLOGY: High Yield topics for NEET PG

General Physiology – Body fluid compartments, cell membrane composition, transport processes

Nerve Muscle – Classification of nerve fibers, injury to nerve fibers, sarcomere, changes during contraction, energy systems in muscle

CVS – conducting system, cardiac cycle (events, JVP, PV loops), ECG, Cardiac output, blood pressure (Measurement, regulation including Baroreceptors), regional circulations (esp coronary, capillary), cardiorespiratory changes in exercise

Respiratory system – Mechanics of breathing (surfactant, compliance, lung volumes & capacities, dead space), V/Q ratio, Gas transport (oxygen), Regulation of breathing (respiratory center, chemoreceptors), Hypoxia.

Kidney – JG apparatus, GFR (Starling’s forces), tubular functions , concentrated urine formation, micturition reflex, types of bladder, Acid-base physiology (buffer systems in the body)

GIT – Structure (ENS, BER, reflexes), motility, secretions (saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, bile), GI hormones

Endocrine and reproduction – Pituitary, thyroid, adrenal cortex, pancreas (hormones and their disorders); Estrogen, testosterone, ovulation

CNS – Introduction (synapse, NTs) Sensory system (receptors, ascending tracts, pain) Motor system (descending tracts, cerebellum , basal ganglia, LMN, muscle spindle), higher functions (hypothalamus, sleep & EEG, hemispheres, learning and memory)

Special senses – Visual pathway, visual processes, organ of corti.

Environmental Physiology – Temperature (exposure to heat and cold), high and low barometric pressures, energy balance.

Best notes to refer: Dr Naveen Porwal

Other notes: Elite Series 

MICROBIOLOGY: High Yield topics for NEET PG

Bacteriology:

• Strep/Staph Classification

• Staph Toxins

• Legionella: Case scenario

• Typhoid toxins

• E.coli, Salmonella , Cholera, Pseudomonas : Lab tests, toxins

• Clostridium: Toxins

• Tuberculosis: Lab Ix most important

• Rickettsia, Syphilis, Leprosy

• Leptospira,Brucella: Case based Qs

Parasitology:

• Malaria: Image based Qs, stages

• Amoebiasis, Giardiasis, Nematodes/Trematodes Transmission And Host

• Toxoplasmosis

• Cysticercosis-Esp. NCC stages

• Haemoflagellates

• Coccidian Parasites

• Cestodes

Virology:

• Classification of viruses

• Influenza: ShiG vs DriG

• Hepatitis: Types, Hep B serology tests most important

• HIV: Opportunistic, AIDS-deterministic infections, Mx

• Herpes Group : Types and infections

• General Virology

• Recent updates in Virology

Mycology:

• Classification Of Fungi

• Dermatophytes

• Endemic Mycoses

• Cryptococcus

• Madura Mycosis: Case based, Radiology

• Candida , occupational fungal diseases

Immunity (To be done with Pathology):

• Immunoglobins

• Immunodeficiency Disorders

• Antigen , Antigen antibody reactions

Best notes to refer: Microbiology Capsule

Other notes: Elite Series 

PATHOLOGY: High Yield topics for NEET PG

Cell injury • Patterns of irreversible cell injury, free radical injury and

pigmentation

Inflammation • Cellular events

• Chemical mediators

• Granulomatous inflammation

Neoplasia • Genetic mechanism of carcinogenesis

• Tumour markers

• Diagnostic techniques

Hematology • Anaemia and iron profiles

• Hemolytic anaemia

• Bleeding disorders classification and diagnosis

• Leukaemia and lymphomas

Genetics • Mode of inheritance

• Techniques for diagnosis of genetic disorders

Respiratory system • Cancers

• Obstructive and restrictive lung diseases

Immunity • General concepts

• Auto immune diseases

• Immune deficiency diseases

• Amyloidosis

GIT • Cancers

• Malabsorption diseases

CVS • Vasculitis

• Ischemic heart disease

Kidney • Nephrotic & nephritic syndromes

• Cancers

Male and Female Genital Tract • Cancers with histological findings

CNS • Degenerative diseases

• Cancers

Liver • Hepatitis markers

• Cirrhosis

Endocrine • Thyroid disorders and histology

• Diabetes

Miscellaneous topics • Images strictly to be revised from Robbins

Best notes to refer: Dr Devesh Mishara notes

Other notes: Pathology Capsule

PHARMACOLOGY: High Yield topics for NEET PG

General: Must Know- pH, pKa, ionization First and zero order kinetics, Bioavailability TDM, First pass metabolism, Receptors types and examples, DRC, PPB, Pharmacogenetics, Prodrugs, Clinical trials, CYP substrates, Drug labels, inducers, inhibitors, Metabolic reactions, Orphan drugs, Formulas, Essential drugs

Desirable to Know- Enzyme inhibition (Competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive), Types of antagonists, Pharmacovigilance, Evidence based medicine

ANS: Must know- AChE inhibitors, Catecholamines ,OP Poisoning table, Glaucoma, Beta blockers, Sympathetic receptors location, Anticholinergics

Desirable to know- Alpha blockers, Rabbit practical

Autocoids: Must know- Antihistaminic, DMARDs, PCM and aspirin poisoning, Gout, Migraine

Desirable to know- PG actions, Other NSAIDs

CVS: Must know- Digoxin JNC 8 guidelines for hypertension, New drugs for CHF, Drugs decreasing mortality in CHF, New antianginal drugs, Statins

Desirable to know- Pulmonary hypertension, Antiarrhythmics, New hypolipidemic drugs.

Best notes to refer: Pharmacology Image bank

Other notes: Elite Series 

FORENSIC MEDICINE: High Yield topics for NEET PG

IPCs (very Important) Relevant to medical practice

Forensic Thanatology • Suspended animation

• Eye changes

• Pattern of Algor mortis

• Livor mortis & poisoning

• Rules in Rigor mortis & distribution of rigor mortis

• Colour Changes in Decomposition.

Autopsy • Techniques of organ dissection

Human identification • Race determination indicators from bone & teeth

• Sex determination of bones (skull & pelvis)

• Indices for sex determination from bones

• Dentition – Ages estimation methods

• Other techniques for identification like dactylography, poroscopy, rugoscopy.

Asphyxiai deaths • PM findings in Hanging, Strangulation

• Hyoid fractures

• Various terms (methods) in strangulation

• Types of drowning

• PM findings in drowning (specific findings &non

specific findings)

Forensic traumatology • Ageing of abrasion, contusion

• Laceration, Stab injury

• Hesitational, defence & fabricated injuries

• Skull fractures

• Various types of gunpowder

• Appearance of wound in different ranges.

• Atypical bullets

Forensic toxicology • Legal duties of a doctor in poisoning

• Diagnosis of poisoning during autopsy (from

hypostasis, smell, appearances of organs)

• Metallic poisons (mercury, Lead & arsenic- most

important)

• Cardiac poisons

• Delirients

• Insecticide poisoning

• Snake bite envenomation

• Plant irritants

Sexual jurisprudence • Rape – examination of accused & victim

• Associated Legal sections

• Various terms in sexual perversions

• Tests for live birth

Forensic Psychiatry • Various rules for criminal responsibility of insane

person

Legal procedures & law • Inquests

• Powers of criminal courts

• Recording of evidence in the court of law & relevant

sections

• Infamous conduct

• Declarations

• Various doctrines involved in medical negligence

Blood stains & seminal

stains

Best notes to refer: FMT Image bank

OPHTHALMOLOGY: High Yield topics for NEET PG

Retina:

• Diabetic retinopathy stages, images, Mx

• Retinal detachment

• ROP staging

• Retinitis pigmentosa

Conjunctiva and cornea:

• Trachoma Image, C/F, Elimination strategies

• Conjunctivitis Difference b/w etiologies

• Corneal Ulcer – Fungal, Viral, Acanthamoeba

Neuro ophthalmology:

• Optic pathway and its lesions

• Eye Deviation In Cranial Nerve Palsies

• Horner Syndrome

• Optic neuritis

• Papilledema

Procedures and surgeries:

• Enucleation/Exenteration, Evisceration : Indications

• Keratoplasty

• Dark room procedures

•Tonometry

• Direct/Indirect Ophthalmoscopy

• Macular Function Tests

• Visual Field Defects

•EOG

Glaucoma:

•Tvpes

• Management Of Glaucoma (To be done with Pharmacology)

Tumors:

• Retinoblastoma, Melanoma: Stages of RB, Mx

Myopia, Hypermetropia

Cataract: Causes, Mx

ENT: High Yield topics for NEET PG

Ear

1. Embryology of Ear

2. Anatomy of Middle Ear (especially posterior wall)

3. Pure tone Audiometry Interpretation

4. BERA/ OAE interpretation and uses

5. Malignant Otitis Externa

6. Complications of CSOM

7. Otosclerosis

8. Meniere’s Disease

9. Vestibular Schwannoma

10. Hearing devices/ Implants such as Cochlear Implant, Auditory Brainstem Implant, BAHA

11. Noise Induced Hearing Loss

12. Ototoxicity

Nose

1. Blood supply of Nasal Septum

2. Allergic fungal Rhinosinusitis

3. Ca Maxilla

4. CSF Rhinorrhea

s. Nasal Polyps

6. CT Scan of Nose and PNS

Pharynx

1. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

2. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

3. Membranous Tonsillitis

4. Tonsillectomy

Larynx

1. Muscles of Larynx

2. Spaces in Larynx: Pre-epiglottic space, proglottic space, Reinke’s space

3. Vocal Folds Palsy

4. Juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

5. Carcinoma Larynx

6. Tracheostomy and Cricothyrotomy

Best notes to refer: ENT Notes

FREE NOTES: INICET notes

These are essential, high-return topics for the NEET PG that call for a number of revisions and practices. However, this does not preclude the inclusion of additional topics or subtopics. No, it’s important to focus on these, but it’s also important to cover other topics and heads. It gets better the more you can learn and memorize. Stay tuned for more details and advice about the NEET PG exam.

Pathology: 7 useful tricks to study for NEET PG

Pathology is one of the most troublesome yet in addition perhaps of the most entrancing class in clinical school. Your knowledge of pathology will not only help you through your transporter, but it may also one day save a life.

We have listed all the best ways to help you get the most out of your Pathology study time and retain more information so that you can get the best grades on your exams.

1.Study Resources

A proper study resource is a best way to get started to study any subject. The best way to learn any subject is through standard books, for pathology many suggest Robbins as a standard book set but it is too lengthy, therefore an ideal way to study is through notes made by expert, Dr Devesh Mishras Pathology notes are world famous and used by many of the toppers of many exams like INI CET, NEET PG, FMGE. It is easy to comprehend and has covered all major topics needed for NEET PG exam.

2. Have your basics cleared

A lifelong skill is the study of anatomy, physiology, and pathology. To comprehend pathology and the causes of diseases, you do not need to know everything about anatomy and physiology; however, you should be familiar with the fundamentals. Therefore, you should first review the fundamental anatomical structure of the brain, the structures that surround it, the blood supply to those structures, and the lobes of the brain that control each function and the physiology of the brain if you are going to study the pathology of the brain the following week. So, if you go to class and your professor talks about stroke, you will know how a blood clot blocks the cerebral artery and affects the functions of each brain lobe.

3.Instead of memorizing the information, understand it!

Facts cannot be memorized without understanding them. Study sheets and a flowchart of the entire mechanism can be made for each disease. If you try to memorize the facts, you will quickly forget them. Hence, you should understand an illness’ neurotic cycle.

4.Repetition

The more you learn, the more likely it is that you will forget many intricate mechanisms. To retain everything you have learned, all you should need to do is repeatedly repeat it. You can revise your notes on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, but the more you do it, the more you will know.

5.Take a test to find out how much you know.

You can ask your friends questions based on your own ideas, or you can use past papers or model papers that your teachers or institute have given you. This is a must-do activity if you want to get good grades because you know exactly what you need to study.

6.Check your mistakes

If you make a mistake during a self-review and use your reference materials to correct it, it is very unlikely that you will forget it. Therefore, always pay extra attention to your errors.

7. Use flashcards / Make them

Use pathology notes to study and prepare flashcards for important topics that can help you revise more effectively.

You can make a variety of flashcards, including questions and answers, diseases and pathology, and others. Making flashcards with questions and answers can help you prepare for the exams.

Make a cheat sheet out of the parts that are more important to you and the topics that you usually forget even more easily. Accordingly, it will make amendment a lot less difficult than going through the reading material over and over.

 

Useful References to learn Pathology

  1. Devesh Mishra Pathology – Get that edge for your medical exams with the Devesh Mishra Pathology notes. Written by the renowned Dr. Devesh Mishra, these notes provide complete coverage on Pathology for NEET PG, INICET and other medical entrance exams. Simplified with easy to understand language and digestible points, this book makes sure that you not only learn but also remember the most important concepts of Pathology. Get ready to ace your upcoming exams with the help of these invaluable notes!

2. Pathology Image Bank – Make learning Pathology more efficient and comprehensive with the Pathology Image Bank from Notespedia. This note has all of the images, flowcharts, tables, and diagrams to make understanding the material easier than ever. What’s more, crisp and clear explanations ensure that you get the most out of each topic. With this image bank, you can learn Pathology in as few as 3 hours. Plus, it’s been proven to increase your strike rate with 30% of the questions in INICET and NEET PG being image based. Finally, this image bank includes all the images used in Robinson’s Pathology textbook with an emphasis on repeated topics. Get ahead and ace your exams with Notespedia’s Pathology Image Bank!

3. Pathoma – Pathoma authored by Dr. Husain A Sattar is a tremendous resource in studying for USMLE Step 1 and preparing for third year MBBS theory exams. Dr. Sattar’s lectures cover all of the high yield pathology points. He explains everything from a basic mechanistic approach which is critical because that is how the questions are tested, but more importantly it develops true understanding which is never forgotten.

 

LIST OF IMPORTANT TOPICS IN PATHOLOGY:


General Pathology

  • Reversible cell injury
  • Pathogenesis of cell injury
  • Morphological changes during cell injury
  • Fatty liver
  • Necrosis
  • Apoptosis
  • Gangrene
  • Calcification
  • Atrophy
  • Hypertrophy & hyperplasia
  • Metaplasia
  • HLA system
  • Transplant rejection
  • Etiology and pathogenesis of AIDS
  • Hypersensitivity reaction
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Pathogenesis of amyloidosis
  • Etiology and pathogenesis of oedema
  • Shock
  • Thrombosis
  • Fat embolism
  • Air embolism
  • Ischemia
  • Infaction
  • Inflammation defination, signs
  • Acute inflammation
  • Mediators of acute inflammation
  • Granulomatous inflammation
  • Primary tuberculosis
  • Milliary tuberculosis
  • Leprosy
  • Syphilis
  • Wound healing
  • Neoplasia
  • Difference between benign and melignant tumors
  • Routes of metastasis
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome
  • Tumor markers
  • Blood Vessels
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Aneurism

Heart

  • Acute myocardial infaction
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Bacterial Endocarditis
  • Serum Cardiac Markers for MI

Respiratory system

  • Lobar Pneumonia
  • Lung Abscess
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Bronchogenic Carcinoma
  • Bronchial Asthma

Liver

  • Liver Function test
  • Jaundice
  • Neonatal Jaundice
  • Viral Hepatitis
  • Acute Hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Alchoholic Liver Disease
  • Billiary Cirrrhosis


Kidney

  • Renal function Test
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Nephritic syndrome
  • Acute pylonephritis
  • Chronic pylonephritis
  • Wilm’s Tumor
  • Acute post streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
  • Non streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
  • RPGN
  • Minimum Change Disease
  • Membrano proliferative Glomerulonephritis
  • Ig A Nephropathy
  • Diabitic Nephropathy
  • Hydronephrosis

GIT

  • Gastritis
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Difference between Gastric and Peptic ulcer
  • Gastric cacinoma
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Enteric Fever
  • Intestinal TB

Endocrine

  • Functions of Thyroid
  • Thyroid Function Test
  • Hashimoto’s Thrroiditis
  • Goiter
  • Toxic Goiter
  • Grave’s Disease
  • Lab diagnosis of DM
  • Glycosylated Hb

CNS

  • Berry Aneurysm
  • Cerebral infarction
  • CSF examination
  • Neuroblastoma

Skin

  • Basal Cell Carcinoma
  • Premalignant Lesions

Breast

  • Fibroadenoma
  • Cancer of Breast
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